Chinese technology poses major risk – GCHQ Chief – bbc.com

Chinese technology poses a major risk to the UK's security and prosperity, the head of GCHQ has said.
In a lecture, Sir Jeremy Fleming said China's leadership was using technology to secure control at home and abroad.
He argued that this was an urgent problem that needed to be addressed by the UK and allies.
He also said Russia's military was exhausted but there were no signs yet of nuclear weapons use.
China has deliberately and patiently set out to gain "strategic advantage by shaping the world's technology ecosystem", the head of the intelligence agency told an audience at the Royal United Service Institute for its annual security lecture.
Sir Jeremy argued the Chinese Communist Party was aiming to manipulate the technology that underpins people's lives to embed its influence at home and abroad and provide opportunities for surveillance.
He warned China was seeking to create "client economies and governments" by exporting technology to countries around the world, and said these countries risked "mortgaging the future" by buying in Chinese technology with "hidden costs".
He pointed to a series of examples including:
But the intelligence chief said he would not stop children using TikTok – which is owned by Chinese firm ByteDance – although he said young people should be more aware of their personal data and how it could be shared.
"No, I wouldn't (stop children from using TikTok), but I would speak to my child about the way in which they think about their personal data on their device," he told BBC Radio 4's Today programme in advance of the lecture.
"I think it's really important from a very early age that we understand that there is no free good here. When we are using these services we are exchanging our data for that and if it's proportionate and we're happy with the way that data is safeguarded then that's great.
"Make the most of that, make those videos, use TikTok – but just think before you do," he added.
Chinese control of future technology is not inevitable though, he said, adding: "Our future strategic tech advantage rests on what we do as a community next."
Sir Jeremy, who runs the agency which monitors communications and cyberspace, also called for a "grown-up" conversation about collaboration with China at UK universities.
There has been controversy over some educational institutions carrying out joint projects with Chinese counterparts with defence or surveillance ties.
He said the UK should continue to welcome students from China but "be really clear on the areas of technology where we will require additional safeguards". Areas like artificial intelligence and quantum computing were particularly important, he told the audience.
His remarks also addressed Russia's invasion of Ukraine. He said Russia's military was "exhausted" and that it was running out of supplies and ammunition.
He argued that the mobilisation of prisoners and inexperienced men "speaks of a desperate situation" – and criticised President Putin as making mistakes.
Speaking on Radio 4's Today programme about the state of the Russian military, Sir Jeremy said it was "running short of munitions" and "is certainly running short of friends".
He said that Russian missile strikes in recent days were not an escalation in terms of the types of weapons being used.
But he warned that the missile attacks on targets across Ukraine on Monday showed Russia was still "very capable" of causing damage.
He added: "Russia's military machine can launch weapons, it has deep stocks and expertise. And yet, it is very broadly stretched in Ukraine."
On concerns over the use of tactical nuclear weapons, he said in response to questions after his lecture that any talk of their use was "extremely dangerous" but that their use still appeared "hopefully a long way off".
He also said he believed the UK and its allies would have a "good chance" of spotting any preparations, although there were never any guarantees.
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